Joint Seminar in Nuclear Physics
14:15 - 14:30 - Refreshments
14:30 - 15:30 "Technologies to Decode the Cancer Epigenome for Research and Diagnostics", Efrat Shema, Department of Immunology and Regenerative Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science
Within the nanoscopic depths of the human cell nucleus, a two-meter spool of DNA is tightly coiled around tiny, ball-shaped nucleosomes. Dr. Efrat Shema works with the histone proteins that make up these nucleosomes, which are collectively responsible for packaging and organizing DNA strands. As these proteins undergo modifications, termed epigenetic modifications, they can alter the accessibility of different regions of the DNA and dictate which genes will be expressed. Such modifications are a critical part of the regulatory systems that determine how stem cells differentiate into specialized cells, how cancer cells avoid chemotherapy, and how tumors survive. The Shema lab focuses on the development of novel single-molecule and single-cell technologies to reveal the combinatorial patterns of epigenetic modifications with unprecedented precision. In recent high-profile publications, they show the value of these technologies in elucidating epigenetic heterogeneity within tumors, with important clinical implications. Moreover, building on their single-molecule technology, they developed a liquid-biopsy approach that allows diagnosis of cancer from a routine blood Work done in collabortion with Guy Ron.
15:30 - 16:00 - Coffee break
16:00 - 17:00 - "Missing beauty of proton-proton interactions", Iakov Aizenberg, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute
Multiparton interactions in proton-proton collisions have long been a topic of great interest. A new look at them has begun to emerge from work being done to understand the dynamics of ‘small systems’, a topic that is taking center stage in the physics of relativistic heavy-ion interactions. Numerous studies conducted at the LHC and lower energies reveal that proton-proton collisions at high energy form a system in which final state interactions substantially impact experimentally observable quantities in the soft sector. However, until recently, no evidence was shown that final state interactions could also affect observables produced in the hard scattering processes. Studies performed by the LHC experiments present strong evidence that the final state interactions in proton-proton collisions have a drastic impact on the b-quark bound states production, whose yields may be reduced by more than a factor of two.